- Original Paper
- Open Access
Effect of phenylephrine and endothelium on vasomotion in rat aorta involves potassium uptake
The Journal of Physiological Sciences volume 63, pages103–111(2013)
Vasomotion is defined as the rhythmic contractions in blood vessels, consisting of two components: vasoconstriction and oscillations of the plasma membrane potential. To determine whether vasomotion is associated with changes in K+ uptake, we measured the effect of phenylephrine (PE) and acetylcholine (ACh) on the K+ uptake and vascular reactivity in rat aortic rings. We found that the incubation of aortic rings with 10−7 M PE (210 ± 28 mg maximum amplitude), and 10−6 M ACh (177 ± 6 mg maximum amplitude) produced the highest rhythmic contractions. Both 10−7 M PE and 10−6 M ACh significantly increased K+ uptake in endothelium-intact aorta versus control (121 % PE, 117 % ACh). Removal of the endothelium blunted rhythmic contractions and decreased K+ uptake in presence of vasoactive substances (88 % PE, 81 % ACh). The inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with 10−4 M l-NNA significantly reduced the rhythmic contractions, and it was reversed in the presence of 10−8 M sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a nitric oxide donor). Also, we found that 10−4 M l-NNA significantly decreased the effect of 10−7 M PE on K+ uptake in aortic rings (104 % PE + l-NNA vs. control). The incubation of endothelium-denuded rings with 10−8 M SNP significantly increased the K+ uptake (116 % SNP vs. control), similar to those observed in the presence of 10−6 M ACh. The inhibition of protein kinase G with KT-5823 blocked SNP-mediated increase in K+ uptake. In conclusion, these data suggest that a certain range of K+ uptake is necessary to induce the rhythmic contractions in response to vasoactive substances.
Vasomotion involves rhythmic oscillations in vascular tone, contraction and relaxation. Rhythmic contractions are a local mechanism to regulate the vascular resistance in microcirculation [1, 2]. Furthermore, it is considered as a compensatory mechanism in hypertension [3, 4] or type 2 diabetes mellitus patients .
Although the mechanisms contributing to vasomotion are not well known, the changes of vascular tone are generated by calcium oscillations in the cytosol of vascular smooth muscle cells . The Koenigsberger vasomotion model postulates three states of contraction in blood vessels with different levels of calcium: small contraction, medium contraction, and tonic contraction, and showed that only the medium contraction produces rhythmic contractions . To regulate the cytosolic calcium oscillations, the membrane oscillator model considers the participation of Ca2+ channels, calcium-activated K+ channels, Na+/Ca2+ exchange, plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase, and the Na+,K+-ATPase .
It has been described that rhythmic contractions occur in arteries in vitro either in response to agonist or spontaneously . The response to agonist is explained because some of these arteries have a highly negative resting membrane potential (−60 mV) . In these cases, rhythmic contractions are preceded by a state of hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane, which is caused by the opening of calcium-activated K+ channels [11, 12]. For example, rhythmic contractions in response to phenylephrine (PE) occurs by plasma membrane depolarization, and Ca2+ influx by opening of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels [10, 13].
The endothelial regulation of rhythmic contractions is still controversial. Although it is known that endothelial nitric oxide (NO) modulates the rhythmic contractions through calcium-activated K+ channels and calcium oscillations of vascular smooth muscle cells [1, 14], little is known about the role of K+ uptake on rhythmic contractions.
It is known that K+ uptake represents major influx of K+ into the cell through Na+,K+-ATPase, and Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter. In the early 1970s, it was stated that K+ uptake via Na+,K+-ATPase is insaturable because efflux of K+ (the pump-leak hypothesis) [15, 16]. However, in the presence of ouabain, a specific inhibitor of Na+,K+-ATPase, K+ uptake is saturable through the cotransporter Na+-K+-2Cl− . It was postulated that the opening of calcium-activated K+ channels inhibits the K+ uptake via Na+,K+-ATPase [18, 19], but not K+ uptake via cotransporter Na+-K+-2Cl−, in vascular smooth cells .
Vasomotion is consisted of two components: rhythmic oscillations of plasma membrane potential and vasoconstriction . The purpose of this study was to determine whether rhythmic contractions are associated with changes in K+ uptake of vascular smooth muscle cells. We studied the effect of different vasoactive substances (PE, ACh, a NO donor) in aortic rings. Female rat aortas were used because their endothelium releases a greater amount of endothelial relaxing factors, such as NO, than male rat endothelium [22–24].
Female Sprague–Dawley rats (1 month old; 100–140 g) from the breeding colony at the University of Antofagasta were used. All rats were housed in groups of three in a temperature-controlled, light-cycled (0800–2000 hours) room with ad libitum access to drinking water, and standard rat chow (Champion, Santiago de Chile). All rats drank water from the time of weaning. The investigation conformed to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals published by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH Publication No. 85-23, revised 1996), and the local animal research committee approved the experimental procedure used in the present study.
Isolation of aortic rings
Rats were killed by cervical dislocation. The thoracic aorta was quickly excised and placed in a cold (4 °C) physiological Krebs–Ringer bicarbonate (KRB) buffer containing (in mM): 4.2 KCl, 1.19 KH2PO4, 120 NaCl, 25 Na2HCO3, 1.2 MgSO4, 1.3 CaCl2, and 5 d-glucose (pH 7.4). Rings (3–5 mm and 2–4 mg) were prepared after connective tissue was dissected from the aorta, taking special care to avoid endothelium damage. Aortic rings were equilibrated for 40 min at 37 °C by constant bubbling with a gas mixture of 95 % O2 and 5 % CO2.
Vascular reactivity experiments
In each experiment, we studied 4–8 adjacent aortic rings from the same animal, using the method for isometric tension measurements . The rings were mounted on two 25-gauge stainless steel wires; the lower one was attached to a stationary glass rod and the upper one was attached to an isometric transducer (Radnoti Glass Technology, Monrovia, CA, USA). The transducer was connected to converter (MP100) and amplifier (DA100) for continuous recording of vascular tension using the AcqKnowledge 220.127.116.11 computer program (BioPac Systems, Santa Barbara, CA, USA). After the equilibration period, the aortic rings were stabilized by 3 successive near-maximum contractions with KCl (60 mM) for 10 min. The passive tension on aorta was 1.4 g, which was determined to be the resting tension for obtaining maximum active tension induced by 60 mM KCl. The vascular reactivity was studied in different concentrations of PE (10−8 to 10−5 M). In another experiment, 10 min after the contraction with 10−6 M PE, the different concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh) were added to the medium (ACh 10−8 to 10−5 M). This protocol was repeated in different conditions: intact aortic rings, endothelium-denuded aortic rings; relaxation with sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (10−9 to 10−5 M), or pre-incubated for 30 min with N ω-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 10−4 M). To test the role of K+ on rhythmic oscillations in rat aorta, vascular reactivity experiments were carried out in different concentrations of KCl (10–30 mM) or in the presence of K+ channel blockers alone [5 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA) and 5 mM Barium chloride (BaCl2)]. To study the role of extracellular calcium, experiments were realized with a calcium-free KRB buffer for 10 min, and then the aortic rings were contracted with 10−7 M PE.
K+ uptake in the rat aorta
The K+ uptake was measured by 86Rb+/K+ uptake into aortic rings according to Palacios et al. . The thoracic aorta was quickly excised and placed in cold (4 °C) KRB buffer. Then, the aortic rings were equilibrated for 40 min in KRB buffer (37 °C), and triplicate samples were incubated in 2 mL of KRB buffer containing 86Rb (0.1 mCi mL−1). Transferring the aortic rings into iced KRB buffer stopped the reaction. The tissue was then quickly washed in cold buffer and gently blotted. Sample radioactivity was determined by Cerenkov radiation in a liquid scintillation counter in the presence of 0.1 % Tween 20 (4 mL). K+ uptake was measured from the total 86Rb+ uptake. The results are expressed as nanomoles of 86Rb+/K+ min−1 (g aorta)−1. The K+ uptake on aorta rat was studied in different concentrations of vasoactive substances: PE (10−7 and 10−5 M), ACh (10−6 and 10−5 M), PE (10−7 M) + ACh (10−6 M), and 10−8 M SNP; PE (10−7 M) + l-NNA (10−4 M), and SNP (10−8 M) + KT-5823 (10−6 M). In some cases, these protocols were repeated in different conditions: intact aortic rings or endothelium-denuded aortic rings.
Drugs and solutions
The following drugs were used in this study: Rubidium chloride (86Rb; Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, Santiago de Chile), l-phenylephrine hydrochloride (PE; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, USA), ACh chloride (Sigma-Aldrich, Munich, Germany), l-NNA (Aldrich Chemical, Sheboygan Falls, WI, USA), SNP (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany), EGTA tetrasodium (Sigma-Aldrich), KT-5823 (Fermentek, Israel); TEA (Sigma-Aldrich); BaCl2 (Merck). Drugs were dissolved in distilled de-ionized water. The solutions in KRB buffer were freshly prepared before each experiment.
The amplitude of rhythmic contractions was measured from the average maximum of 5 cycles for 1 min, and 5 min after the contractile response to agonist. Values are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean; n denotes the number of rings studied. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to detect significant differences, followed by Student–Newman–Keuls test to compare all groups. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Effect of PE and ACh on rhythmic contractions in rat aortic rings
The first experiments on the aorta were designed to analyze the rhythmic contractions in response to agonist. Vascular reactivity experiments were carried out in the presence of PE alone (10−8 to 10−5 M) or ACh (10−8 to 10−5 M) following 10−6 M PE. As shown in Fig. 1a, b, we observed rhythmic contractions in the intact aortic rings of rat with both vasoactive substances. These responses were dose-dependent and reversible after washing. We found that 10−7 M PE (210 ± 28 mg maximum amplitude) and 10−6 M ACh (177 ± 6 mg maximum amplitude) produced the highest rhythmic contractions (Fig. 1c, d; Table 1). We determined that there was an optimal vascular tone to produce the maximum amplitude of oscillation: 1.60 ± 0.10 g for 10−7 M PE, 1.34 ± 0.03 g for 10−6 M ACh, and 1.46 ± 0.02 g for 10−7 M ACh (Fig. 1c, d).
Role of K+ on rhythmic contractions in rat aortic rings
To test whether K+ efflux is involved, vascular reactivity experiments in aortic rings were carried out in different concentrations of KCl (10–30 mM) or in the presence of K+ channel blockers. As shown in Fig. 2a, rhythmic contractions were only observed with 20 mM KCl (168 ± 10 mg maximum amplitude). Thereafter, the role of K+ efflux was evaluated. The vascular tone increased with both K+ channel blockers, 5 mM TEA (a nonselective blocker of calcium-activated K+ channel) and 5 mM BaCl2 (a blocker of inward rectifier K+ channel), but rhythmic contractions were only observed with TEA (Fig. 2b).
PE-induced rhythmic contractions are depended of extracellular calcium
To study the role of extracellular calcium on rhythmic contractions in response to PE, experiments were started with a calcium-free KRB buffer. As shown in Fig. 3, the rhythmic contractions appeared after adding increasing doses of calcium to the medium. For example, 0.6 mM Ca2+ increased the vasoconstriction and rhythmic contractions (37 ± 7 mg maximum amplitude), and 1 mM Ca2+ produced the highest rhythmic contractions (117 ± 22 mg maximum amplitude).
Effect of endothelium on rhythmic contractions in rat aortic rings
To evaluate the role of the endothelium on PE-induced rhythmic contractions, experiments were repeated under the same conditions but after removal of the endothelium. In endothelium-denuded aortic rings, we found that only 10−8 M PE produced rhythmic contractions (Table 1). In order to confirm the potential role of NO in rhythmic contractions modulation, vascular reactivity experiments were carried out in intact arteries pre-incubated with l-NNA, and in the presence of SNP. As shown in Fig. 4, the pre-incubation with 10−4 M l-NNA reduced rhythmic contractions in endothelium-intact aortic rings (21 ± 3 mg maximum amplitude with l-NNA). The addition of 10−8 M SNP restored the rhythmic contractions in the presence of l-NNA (149 ± 15 mg maximum amplitude; Fig. 4); but other concentrations of SNP (10−10, 10−9, 10−7, and 10−6 M) could not.
Role of K+ uptake on rhythmic contractions in rat aortic rings
With respect to the effect of KCl or K+ channel blockers on rhythmic contractions, described above, we asked whether K+ uptake is associated to PE- or ACh-induced rhythmic contractions. To check this hypothesis, K+ uptake was determined in intact aortic rings incubated with different concentrations of PE alone (10−7 and 10−6 M), or ACh alone (10−6 and 10−5 M). As shown in Fig. 5, we found that 10−7 M PE and 10−6 M ACh significantly increased %K+ uptake in endothelium-intact aorta versus control. Increasing the PE concentration 10−5 M further increased the K+ uptake (116 ± 2 % with 10−7 M PE vs. 136 ± 5 % with 10−5 M PE; P < 0.01), whereas increasing the ACh concentration to 10−5 M decreased the K+ uptake (116 ± 6 % with 10−6 M ACh vs. 96 ± 6 % with 10−5 M ACh; P < 0.05).
On the other hand, we confirmed that K+ uptake in the presence of 10−6 M ACh alone or 10−6 M ACh following 10−6 M PE (118 ± 5 % with ACh + PE vs. control) was not significantly different.
Effect of endothelium on K+ uptake in rat aortic rings
To investigate the effect of the endothelium, K+ uptake was measured in endothelium-intact or endothelium-denuded aortic rings incubated with 10−7 M PE or 10−6 M ACh. Both vasoactive substances significantly increased K+ uptake in endothelium-intact aortic rings. As shown in Fig. 6, 10−7 M PE increased the K+ uptake (control 420 ± 22 vs. 509 ± 14 nmol 86Rb/K min−1 g wt tissue−1; P < 0.01), and also 10−6 M ACh increased the K+ uptake (control 433 ± 10 vs. 505 ± 28 nmol 86Rb/K min−1 g wt tissue−1; P < 0.01). However, removal of the endothelium significantly reduced the K+ uptake with 10−7 M PE (control 387 ± 26 vs. 448 ± 10 nmol 86Rb/K min−1 g wt tissue−1 with PE), and 10−6 M ACh (control 373 ± 18 vs. 409 ± 19 nmol 86Rb/K min−1 g wt tissue−1 with ACh).
To provide some information as to the possible nature of the endothelial factor involved in the K+ uptake in response to PE, the vascular rings were incubated with 10−4 M l-NNA. As shown in Fig. 7a, PE-induced K+ uptake was blocked in the presence of l-NNA (480 ± 28 with PE vs. 413 ± 9 nmol 86Rb/K min−1 g wt tissue−1 with PE + l-NNA; P < 0.05).
To study whether protein kinase G is involved in this phenomenon, we used a specific inhibitor of protein kinase G (KT-5823). Experiments were carried out in endothelium-denuded aortic rings incubated with 10−8 M SNP in the absence or presence of 10−6 M KT-5823. As shown in Fig. 7b, SNP induced a significant increase in K+ uptake (control 332 ± 8 vs. 359 ± 9 nmol 86Rb/K min−1 g wt tissue−1 with SNP; P < 0.05), and KT-5823 blocked SNP-mediated increase in K+ uptake (319 ± 12 nmol 86Rb/K min−1 g wt tissue−1).
The question addressed by the present study was whether the rhythmic contractions were associated with changes in K+ uptake in rat aortic rings. The main finding of the study is that rhythmic contractions are dependent of K+ uptake in response to vasoactive substances in aortic rings of rats. Moreover, we found that the increase in K+ uptake is a direct influence of an endothelial factor.
In this study, we show that rhythmic contractions occurred after adding different doses of PE (10−8 to 10−5 M PE) on intact aortic rings of rat. The highest concentration of PE or the continuous PE-stimulation reduced the rhythmic contractions, but aorta regained almost the initial level of rhythmic contractions after washout. PE-induced rhythmic contractions required reaching a threshold of vascular tone, and were mediated through the influx of extracellular Ca2+ in aortic rings. Interestingly, ACh following PE also produced rhythmic oscillations of vascular tone. Therefore, these findings suggest that rhythmic contractions require a certain status of vasoconstriction in response to vasoactive substances [26, 27].
To check whether K+ is involved with rhythmic contractions, vascular reactivity experiments in aortic rings were performed in different concentrations of KCl (10–30 mM), or in the presence of K+ channels blockers. We found that incubation with 20 mM KCl, or inhibition of calcium-activated K+ channels by TEA alone in intact aorta produced vasoconstriction, and rhythmic contractions. This is in agreement with the previous studies that show KCl causes rhythmic contractions in aortic rings from normotensive rats . Other authors have shown that inhibition of calcium-activated K+ channels by TEA enhanced rhythmic contractions in response to PE in rat aorta , or TEA alone caused rhythmic contractions in endothelium-denuded rings of sinoaortic denervated rat aortas . Thus, the rhythmic contractions are due, in part, to the K+ influx and activity of K+ channels  in rat blood vessels.
It is known that Na+,K+-ATPase and Na+-K+-2Cl− are responsible for the maintenance of K+ influx into the vascular cell. We previously observed that the inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase with ouabain significantly reduced rhythmic contractions in rat aorta in response to PE (data not shown), a result that agrees with data previously reported by others [30, 31]. While, the inhibition of cotransporter Na+-K+-2Cl− with bumetanide (a specific inhibitor) significantly increased rhythmic contractions in rat aorta in response to PE (data not shown).
K+ uptake activity regulated rhythmic contractions. In intact aortic rings, 10−6 M ACh following PE induced rhythmic contractions that were associated with the increase in K+ uptake activity; whereas, decreased K+ uptake by an increment of ACh dose reduced rhythmic contractions. On the other hand, 10−7 M PE also increased K+ uptake activity and induced rhythmic contractions. But the increased K+ uptake, by increasing of PE dose, failed to induce rhythmic contractions.
Whereas several studies have analyzed the regulation of endothelium on vasomotion by the activation of K+ channels [12, 30, 32, 33], we have studied the regulation of endothelium on vasomotion by the K+ uptake in vascular smooth muscle cells of rat aorta. Stimulatory action of PE or ACh, at the same concentrations used in vascular reactivity experiments, significantly increased the K+ uptake in the endothelium-intact aorta of rat; in contrast, removal of the endothelium inhibited the stimulatory action of both vasoactive substances on K+ uptake.
The vascular endothelium regulates vasomotion [6, 10, 11]. In fact, the absent of endothelium in rat aorta blunted rhythmic contractions in response to 10−7 or 10−6 M PE, but it occurred with 10−8 M PE. Previous studies in hamster aorta  or rat mesenteric arteries  showed that rhythmic contractions occurred when the endothelium was present. In other studies, rhythmic contractions were promoted when the endothelium was removed from rat aorta (or the nitric oxide synthase was inhibited) . However, in some situations, the absence or presence of the endothelium did not affect vasomotion in rat aorta . Consequently, these data suggest that endothelium modulates vasomotion, rather than causing inhibition or stimulation .
To obtain further insight into the eventual endothelial factor, we have studied K+ uptake and rhythmic contractions in the presence of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor or a nitric oxide donor. The inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) with l-NNA significantly reduced the rhythmic contractions, and it was reversed in the presence of SNP (a nitric oxide donor). Also, we found that l-NNA significantly decreased the effect of PE on K+ uptake in aortic rings. The increase of SNP-induced K+ uptake was blocked by KT-5823, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase G . Moreover, the increase in K+ uptake in response to ACh was only observed in intact aortic rings, confirming a direct influence of an endothelial factor. Previous studies show that the relative contribution of the endothelium itself in the K+ uptake from intact aortic rings is negligible, hence an endothelial factor is directly involved in K+ uptake increase [37, 38].
In summary, we show that rhythmic contractions is associated with a change of K+ uptake on vascular smooth muscle cells in rat aortic rings in response to vasoactive substances. As illustrated in Fig. 8, our results are consistent with a putative model in which vasomotion phenomenon consists of two components: tonic and phasic vascular response. The tonic response is Ca2+-dependent and the phasic response is K+ gradient-dependent. The K+ gradient is generated by the K+ uptake (via Na+, K+-ATPase and Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter) and K+ efflux (via K+ channels). In particular, the K+ uptake is a direct influence of an endothelial factor, probably nitric oxide, on intact aortic rings of rat. The findings of this study have clinical implications. Vasomotion may be considered as a compensatory mechanism to preserve the perfusion of tissues , especially in patients with hypertension [3, 40], type 2 diabetes mellitus [5, 41] or ischemia .
Nilsson H, Aalkjaer C (2003) Vasomotion: mechanisms and physiological importance. Mol Interv 3(2):79–89
Funk W, Endrich B, Messmer K, Intaglietta M (1983) Spontaneous arteriolar vasomotion as a determinant of peripheral vascular resistance. Int J Microcirc Clin Exp 2(1):11–25
Hollenberg NK, Sandor T (1984) Vasomotion of renal blood flow in essential hypertension. Oscillations in xenon transit. Hypertension 6(4):579–585
Nafz B, Stegemann J, Bestle MH, Richter N, Seeliger E, Schimke I, Reinhardt HW, Persson PB (2000) Antihypertensive effect of 0.1-Hz blood pressure oscillations to the kidney. Circulation 101(5):553–557
Lefrandt JD, Bosma E, Oomen PH, Hoeven JH, Roon AM, Smit AJ, Hoogenberg K (2003) Sympathetic mediated vasomotion and skin capillary permeability in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. Diabetologia 46(1):40–47
Peng H, Matchkov V, Ivarsen A, Aalkjaer C, Nilsson H (2001) Hypothesis for the initiation of vasomotion. Circ Res 88(8):810–815
Koenigsberger M, Sauser R, Beny JL, Meister JJ (2005) Role of the endothelium on arterial vasomotion. Biophys J 88(6):3845–3854
Parthimos D, Edwards DH, Griffith TM (1999) Minimal model of arterial chaos generated by coupled intracellular and membrane Ca2+ oscillators. Am J Physiol 277(3 Pt 2):H1119–H1144
Hill CE, Eade J, Sandow SL (1999) Mechanisms underlying spontaneous rhythmical contractions in irideal arterioles of the rat. J Physiol 521(Pt 2):507–516
Haddock RE, Hill CE (2005) Rhythmicity in arterial smooth muscle. J Physiol 566(Pt 3):645–656
Jackson WF (1988) Oscillations in active tension in hamster aortas: role of the endothelium. Blood Vessels 25(3):144–156
Okazaki K, Seki S, Kanaya N, Hattori J, Tohse N, Namiki A (2003) Role of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in phenylephrine-induced oscillatory vasomotion in rat small mesenteric artery. Anesthesiology 98(5):1164–1171
Oishi H, Schuster A, Lamboley M, Stergiopulos N, Meister JJ, Beny JL (2002) Role of membrane potential in vasomotion of isolated pressurized rat arteries. Life Sci 71(19):2239–2248
Jiang J, Thoren P, Caligiuri G, Hansson GK, Pernow J (1999) Enhanced phenylephrine-induced rhythmic activity in the atherosclerotic mouse aorta via an increase in opening of KCa channels: relation to Kv channels and nitric oxide. Br J Pharmacol 128(3):637–646
Garrahan PJ, Glynn IM (1967) The sensitivity of the sodium pump to external sodium. J Physiol 192(1):175–188
Sachs JR (1971) Ouabain-insensitive sodium movements in the human red blood cell. J Gen Physiol 57(3):259–282
Russell JM (2000) Sodium-potassium-chloride cotransport. Physiol Rev 80(1):211–276
Dora KA, Ings NT, Garland CJ (2002) K(Ca) channel blockers reveal hyperpolarization and relaxation to K+ in rat isolated mesenteric artery. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 283(2):H606–H614
Weston AH, Richards GR, Burnham MP, Feletou M, Vanhoutte PM, Edwards G (2002) K+-induced hyperpolarization in rat mesenteric artery: identification, localization and role of Na+/K+-ATPases. Br J Pharmacol 136(6):918–926
Akar F, Jiang G, Paul RJ, O’Neill WC (2001) Contractile regulation of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(−) cotransporter in vascular smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 281(2):C579–C584
Dora KA (2010) Coordination of vasomotor responses by the endothelium. Circ J 74(2):226–232
Andersen HL, Weis JU, Fjalland B, Korsgaard N (1999) Effect of acute and long-term treatment with 17-beta-estradiol on the vasomotor responses in the rat aorta. Br J Pharmacol 126(1):159–168
Cid MC, Schnaper HW, Kleinman HK (2002) Estrogens and the vascular endothelium. Ann NY Acad Sci 966:143–157
Hishikawa K, Nakaki T, Marumo T, Suzuki H, Kato R, Saruta T (1995) Up-regulation of nitric oxide synthase by estradiol in human aortic endothelial cells. FEBS Lett 360(3):291–293
Palacios J, Espinoza F, Munita C, Cifuentes F, Michea L (2006) Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter is implicated in gender differences in the response of the rat aorta to phenylephrine. Br J Pharmacol 148(7):964–972
Freeman KA, Mao A, Nordberg LO, Pak J, Tallarida RJ (1995) The relationship between vessel wall tension and the magnitude and frequency of oscillation in rat aorta. Life Sci 56(6):PL129–PL134
Suenaga H, Kamata K (2000) Alpha-adrenoceptor agonists produce Ca2+ oscillations in isolated rat aorta: role of protein kinase C. J Smooth Muscle Res 36(6):205–218
Rocha ML, Bendhack LM (2007) Effects of K+ channel modulators on oscillatory contractions in sinoaortic denervated rat aortas. Biol Pharm Bull 30(11):2098–2104
Mauban JR, Wier WG (2004) Essential role of EDHF in the initiation and maintenance of adrenergic vasomotion in rat mesenteric arteries. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 287(2):H608–H616
Gustafsson H, Nilsson H (1993) Rhythmic contractions of isolated small arteries from rat: role of calcium. Acta Physiol Scand 149(3):283–291
Matchkov VV (2010) Mechanisms of cellular synchronization in the vascular wall. Mechanisms of vasomotion. Dan Med Bull 57(10):B4191
Omote M, Mizusawa H (1993) The role of sarcoplasmic reticulum in endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent rhythmic contractions in the rabbit mesenteric artery. Acta Physiol Scand 149(1):15–21
Huang Y, Cheung KK (1997) Endothelium-dependent rhythmic contractions induced by cyclopiazonic acid in rat mesenteric artery. Eur J Pharmacol 332(2):167–172
Marchenko SM, Sage SO (1994) Smooth muscle cells affect endothelial membrane potential in rat aorta. Am J Physiol 267(2 Pt 2):H804–H811
Jacobsen JC, Aalkjaer C, Matchkov VV, Nilsson H, Freiberg JJ, Holstein-Rathlou NH (2008) Heterogeneity and weak coupling may explain the synchronization characteristics of cells in the arterial wall. Philos Transact A Math Phys Eng Sci 366(1880):3483–3502
Kase H, Iwahashi K, Nakanishi S, Matsuda Y, Yamada K, Takahashi M, Murakata C, Sato A, Kaneko M (1987) K-252 compounds, novel and potent inhibitors of protein kinase C and cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 142(2):436–440
Michea L, Irribarra V, Goecke IA, Marusic ET (2001) Reduced Na–K pump but increased Na-K-2Cl cotransporter in aorta of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 280(2):H851–H858
Palacios J, Marusic ET, Lopez NC, Gonzalez M, Michea L (2004) Estradiol-induced expression of N(+)-K(+)-ATPase catalytic isoforms in rat arteries: gender differences in activity mediated by nitric oxide donors. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 286(5):H1793–H1800
Pradhan RK, Chakravarthy VS (2011) Informational dynamics of vasomotion in microvascular networks: a review. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 201(2):193–218
Frielingsdorf J, Kaufmann P, Seiler C, Vassalli G, Suter T, Hess OM (1996) Abnormal coronary vasomotion in hypertension: role of coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 28(4):935–941
Stansberry KB, Shapiro SA, Hill MA, McNitt PM, Meyer MD, Vinik AI (1996) Impaired peripheral vasomotion in diabetes. Diabetes Care 19(7):715–721
Intaglietta M (1991) Arteriolar vasomotion: implications for tissue ischemia. Blood Vessels 28(Suppl 1):1–7
This work was in part supported by grants from Fondo Interno de Investigación Científica de la Universidad Católica del Norte (DGIP 220203-10301206 and DGIP 220203-10301239); Dirección General de Investigación (DIRINV 1339-2007) de la Universidad de Antofagasta, and FONDECYT 3120006 to J.L.V.
About this article
Cite this article
Palacios, J., Vega, J.L., Paredes, A. et al. Effect of phenylephrine and endothelium on vasomotion in rat aorta involves potassium uptake. J Physiol Sci 63, 103–111 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12576-012-0240-9
- Potassium uptake