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Table 3 Hemodynamics and respiratory variables during baseline and fragrance inhalation of grapefruit essential oil in study 2

From: Increase in diastolic blood pressure induced by fragrance inhalation of grapefruit essential oil is positively correlated with muscle sympathetic nerve activity

 BLInh-5 minInh-10 min
HR, beats/min54.3 ± 7.453.8 ± 6.853.7 ± 7.0
SBP, mmHg124 ± 15126 ± 15128 ± 3
MBP, mmHg87 ± 1389 ± 1390 ± 12
DBP, mmHg68 ± 1270 ± 1371 ± 12*
VE, L/min8.5 ± 4.98.3 ± 4.68.3 ± 4.8
RR, breaths/min14.2 ± 6.412.7 ± 6.713.4 ± 4.2
VO2, mL/min285 ± 176302 ± 175290 ± 176
VCO2, mL/min220 ± 136227 ± 131227 ± 139
RER0.78 ± 0.060.76 ± 0.060.78 ± 0.06
  1. Values are means ± SD. Average data for 5 min of baseline (BL) and for the first (Inh-5 min) and last half (Inh-10 min) of fragrance inhalation are shown. *P < 0.05 vs. BL
  2. HR heart rate, SBP systolic blood pressure, MBP mean blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, VE minute ventilation, RR respiratory rate, VO2 oxygen consumption rate, VCO2 carbon dioxide production rate, RER respiratory exchange ratio