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Table 4 Changes in exercise testing after a 3-week combination therapy with ghrelin and dietary medium-chain triglycerides (N = 10)

From: A phase II, open-label clinical trial on the combination therapy with medium-chain triglycerides and ghrelin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

 Pre-treatmentAt 3 weeksAt 7 weeksp value
6-MWD, m304 (104)347 (99)*351 (107)*0.0107
CPET, at peak exercise
 \( V_{{{\text{O}}_{2} }}^{{\prime }} \), mL/min/kg10.9 (2.6)11.5 (2.2)11.8 (2.2)0.1873
 \( V_{{{\text{O}}_{2} }}^{{\prime }} \), mL/min495.1 (109.6)543.1 (122.8)562.3 (109.1)*0.0120
 Endurance time, s333 (157)400 (112)**389 (107)*0.0065
 Dyspnea (Borg scale)5.7 (1.2)6.5 (1.8)5.8 (2.0)0.1078
 Leg discomfort (Borg scale)4.8 (2.6)4.1 (2.3)3.9 (2.6)0.3907
 VT, L0.86 (0.17)0.92 (0.14)0.95 (0.14)0.0838
 fR, breaths/min30 (7)30 (6)28 (6)0.0442
 VE, L/min24.9 (6.1)28.0 (7.7)*26.6 (7.3)0.0141
 \( \Delta {\text{F}}_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }} \),  %2.48 (0.40)2.41 (0.26)2.62 (0.34)0.0349
 VD/VT0.43 (0.06)0.44 (0.03)0.43 (0.05)0.6099
 VE/\( V_{{{\text{O}}_{2} }}^{{\prime }} \)50.7 (7.9)51.4 (5.4)47.1 (6.8)*††0.0051
 VE/\( V_{{{\text{CO}}_{2} }}^{{\prime }} \)50.8 (6.9)49.1 (4.9)47.7 (6.3)0.0824
 R1.00 (0.07)1.05 (0.09)**0.99 (0.08)†††0.0004
 HR, beats/min114 (20)121 (20)*116 (19)0.0296
 O2 pulse, mL/beats4.3 (0.5)4.5 (0.6)4.9 (0.8)**†0.0043
 SpO2,  %90.7 (5.7)89.5 (3.7)91.0 (4.0)0.3575
  1. Two patients performed CPET while breathing the same \( {\text{Fi}}_{{{\text{O}}_{ 2} }} \) of 24% pre-treatment and post-treatment. Data are presented as means (SD)
  2. The resultant p values are represented. The variables were tested by a linear mixed effect model
  3. CPET cardiopulmonary exercise testing, \( \Delta F_{{O_{2} }} \): inspired oxygen concentration (FiO2) minus expired oxygen concentration (FeO2), fR breathing frequency, HR heart rate, 6-MWD 6-min walk distance, R respiratory quotient, SpO2 percutaneous oxygen saturation, VD/VT physiologic dead space/tidal volume ratio, V’E minute ventilation, \( V_{{CO_{2} }}^{\prime } \) carbon dioxide output, \( V_{{O_{2} }}^{\prime } \) oxygen uptake, O2pulse\( V_{{{\text{O}}_{2} }}^{{\prime }} \)/HR, VT tidal volume
  4. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, by the least squares means Tukey’s honestly significant difference test, compared with pre-treatment values
  5. p < 0.05, ††p < 0.01, †††p < 0.001, by the least squares means Tukey’s honestly significant difference test, compared with the values at 3 weeks