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Table 3 Changes in the resting parameters after a 3-week combination therapy with ghrelin and dietary medium-chain triglycerides (N = 10)

From: A phase II, open-label clinical trial on the combination therapy with medium-chain triglycerides and ghrelin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

 Pre-treatmentAt 3 weeksAt 7 weeksp value
Body weight, kg46.1 (7.7)47.5 (7.2)**48.2 (8.0)***0.0003
BMI, kg/m217.4 (2.1)18.1 (1.5)*18.3 (1.8)***0.0008
Total lean mass, kg36.1 (4.7)37.0 (4.5)**35.9 (4.6)††0.0011
Food intake, kcal/day1853 (264)1962 (318)ND0.0360
MEP, cmH2099.7 (26.2)106.9 (34.7)102.0 (38.4)0.5413
MIP, cmH20− 56.3 (12.6)− 63.7 (14.2)− 59.3 (12.0)0.2058
Urinary NE on 24-h collection, μg/day268.7 (121.9)126.1 (48.3)ND0.0063
Pulmonary function test
 FEV1, L0.85 (0.24)0.87 (0.20)0.86 (0.21)0.8963
 FEV1/FVC, %34.2 (6.9)33.0 (5.9)33.0 (6.4)0.5492
 %FEV1, %33.4 (9.0)34.4 (7.6)34.2 (8.1)0.7830
 VC, L2.53 (0.56)2.60 (0.51)2.58 (0.45)0.8298
 %VC, %80.6 (14.5)83.9 (12.1)83.6 (10.8)0.6316
SGRQ
 Symptoms66.4 (21.4)50.9 (22.3)*56.2 (17.4)0.0153
 Activity67.9 (11.4)70.6 (12.5)67.8 (17.3)0.6497
 Impacts40.3 (21.1)36.8 (16.6)44.4 (25.9)0.1197
 Total53.2 (16.6)49.8 (14.2)53.5 (21.0)0.3713
  1. Data are presented as means (SD)
  2. The resultant p values are represented. The variables were tested by a linear mixed effect model
  3. FEV1 forced expiratory volume in one second, FVC forced vital capacity, MEP maximal expiratory pressure, MIP maximal inspiratory pressure, NE norepinephrine level, SGRQ St. George Respiratory Questionnaire, VC vital capacity
  4. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 by the least squares means Tukey’s honestly significant difference test, compared with pre-treatment values
  5. p < 0.05, ††p < 0.01 by the least squares means Tukey’s honestly significant difference test, compared with the values at 3 weeks