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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the patients (N = 11)

From: A phase II, open-label clinical trial on the combination therapy with medium-chain triglycerides and ghrelin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Age, years 71.3 (4.8), 64–78
Sex, male/female (number) 10/1
BMI, kg/m2 17.4 (1.9), 13.9–20.9
Cigarette smoking, pack years 54.6 (24.7), 24.5–98
GOLD, III/IV, number 6/5
Pulmonary function test
 FEV1, L 0.82 (0.25), 0.41–1.29
 %FEV1, % predicted 32.2 (9.4), 16.8–48.2
 FEV1/FVC, % 34.3 (6.6), 22.9–46.0
 VC, L 2.47 (0.57), 1.83–3.39
 %VC, % 78.3 (15.7), 55.6–100.5
Incremental work rate exercise testing
 At peak exercise  
 Dyspnea, Borg scale 5.8 (1.2), 4–7
 \( V_{{{\text{O}}_{2} }}^{{\prime }} \), mL/min/kg 10.6 (2.6), 6.9–14.1
SGRQ
 Total score 55.6 (17.7), 26.8–79.9
 Symptoms score 67.5 (20.6), 19.1–92.0
 Activity score 70.1 (13.1), 54.4–92.5
 Impacts score 40.3 (22.4), 4.9–73.4
Medications (number)
 LAMA 11
 LABA 9
 ICS 6
 Triple inhalation therapy 5
 Methylxanthines 0
  1. Data are presented as mean (SD) and as the minimum and maximum values, unless otherwise stated
  2. BMI body mass index, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in one second, FVC forced vital capacity, GOLD global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease, ICS inhaled corticosteroids, LABA long-acting β2-agonist, LAMA long-acting muscarinic antagonist, SGRQ St. George Respiratory Questionnaire; Triple inhalation; a combination of LAMA, LABA, and ICS, VC vital capacity, \( V_{{O_{2} }}^{\prime } \) oxygen uptake
  3. Medications are presented separately